May 8, 1945: Victory in Europe. Millions flooded the streets to celebrate the unconditional surrender of Nazi Germany and the formal end of World War II in the European Theater. In the northern Algerian market town of Setif, a victory parade of 5,000 Algerian Muslims ended in clashes between the marchers and the local French gendarmerie, when the latter tried to seize banners attacking colonial rule. Subsequent attacks on French settlers known as pied noirs in the Algerian countryside left 103 Europeans dead and another hundred wounded (including many reports of rape and mutilated corpses). The French restored order, and five days later in concert with colonial Senegalese troops enacted a series of reprisals and summary executions which left anywhere from 20,000 (the figure acknowledged by France) to 45,000 (the figure quoted by Radio Cairo at the time) Algerians dead.